Oggi 13/12/2018 ore 11:34

Insects

Orthopteroid Thanks to the recent research conducted by G. Fassari, who has made it the subject of his doctoral thesis research, the number of species of this group of orders which includes Blattodea (cockroaches), Mantodea, Orthoptera (crickets and grasshoppers), Phasmida (stick insects) and earwig (scissors) , what we know now is almost double compared to what we knew five years ago, including now about eighty Carpocoris mediterraneo e Crisomelideknown species in Etna: it is important to note that very few discoveries are to be expeceted in this field in the future.
Among Blattodea, in addition to common anthropophili cockroaches, Blatta orientalis (L.) blackish short wings, and Periplaneta americana (L.) shiny brown wings well developed that make it capable to flight, are to remember: Polyphaga aegyptiaca (L. ) large (20-27 mm), blackish brown in color with the male depressed and wings well developed, with the female body hemispheric and completely devoid of wings Ectobius lagrecai Failla and Messina, winged species previously known only for Etna, with ocher body of 9 mm long and preferably living in the woods of oak litter; Pbyllodromica tyrrbeuica (Rme), small species (6 mm) exclusive of Sicily, who lives in the litter.
Among the Mantodea, voracious predators characterized by front raptatory legs, we should mention the common mantis (Mantis religiosa L.), the Iris oratoria (L.) with the second pair of brightly coloured wings and Empusa pen (Thunb.) with long, thin and frail front with the head prolonged into a conical process. Edemeride e Coccinellide
But the Orthopteroids are the ones to call the attention of the visitors of the natural environment, with 66 species and their populations are very numerous and active, able to jump and make short flights, living mainly on bare land, grass or bushes.
Four species in Etna mountain behave as mountain species associated with mid-high altitudes, they are: Leptopbyes puuctatissima (Bosc.), European species of green colour and spotted of brown with no wings, and Steuobotbrus lineatus (Panz.) Eurosiberian species with wings, which probably reached Sicily during the Quaternary glaciations, similar to it is the case of Platycleis grisea (F.) with long wings and very long anthems like million threads, and a Cbortbippus pr. mollis (Charp.), the latter reaches high altitudes where we find the Astragalus Siculus, where it is very common.
Three other interesting species are: the Poecilimon laevissimus (Fisch.), species of Balkan origin are rare and located on the northern slopes of Etna, with very small wings and brilliant colours, the Calabrian Anuipe (Costa), 2-3 cm long , ocher and with very small wings, an interesting element of the ancient fauna native of Sicily at the prequaternaria period present at low altitudes of the western slope; l 'Uromenus riggioi (Greece) endemic species also of Sicilian origin prequaternaria, which places its eggs in the stems of flour.
Buprestipide  e Oryctes nasicomisThe other species are more or less common throughout Sicily and the Italian peninsula and will remember only a few. In the spring appears the most elegant Acrometopa italica (Ramme), large, gray-green, with very long white antennae, slender legs and exceptionally long. On the foliage of oak and chestnut trees we find a green-colored little grasshopper without wings and with the apparent front very well developed on the basis of the abdomen: is the Cyrtaspisscutata (Charp.).
At the edge of the woods and in clearings among the shrub vegetation, there are many species of grasshoppers predators, fast, big, very long hind legs, and great jumpers, and all with very small wings: 1'Eupbolidoptera cbabrieri bimucronata (Ramme) emerald colour, and the two species of Rbacocleis dun-colored, R. nested (Fieb.) and R. ueglecta (Costa). In the litter of all the woods is very common to trigger a blackish cricket without wings, Mogoplistes brunues (Serv), and a mottled dark brown cricket, also Attero, the Dalmatian Gryllomorpha (Oscsk.): it also lives under rocks and in damp areas of housing.
The sciara, the rocky ground with sparse vegetation, frequently hosts various species of grasshoppers with wings enjoying significant omochromia, so when they are lying on the ground they are so well masked that you can not see them, but can be seen easily for the second pair of wings brightly colored when they get up in flight because disturbed by men passing by.
In the Oedipoda miniata (Pallas), in Acrotylus iusubricus (Scopoli) and Acrotylus patruelis (HS) wings are red with a black band curving, in 0edipoda coerulesceus (L. ) Licenide e anthocaris damonethe wings are blue with a black band and in the Siculian Oedipoda fuscocincta (Fieb.) the wings are olive, always with a black band curving. Black sand and volcanic ashes of the desert in which they live in groups often very numerous, is the Sphiugonotus coerulans exornatus (Nedel.), the wings of a soft heavenly blue, this is an insect that, as the ladybird of 7 spots [ photo], reaches the highest altitudes of the volcano, up to over 3,000 meters. There are numerous species of grasshoppers of the pastures, dense or sparse, will remember only some of the most frequent.
The small Pezotettixgiornai (Rossi) with the lateral wings reduced to two stumps, the Calliptamus barbarus (Costa) with strong back, the Chorthippus bruuneus (Thunb.) the most common and widespread grasshopper in Etna, the elegant Mediterranean Acrid Hungarian (Dirsh ), large, who lives at lower altitudes and is noted for its long conical head.
Finally, we should not forget the rare Saga pedo (Pallas), located at the north-west of the volcano, one of the greatest Italian insects, whose populations are composed exclusively of females that reproduce by parthenogenesis.
From the order of Fasmodei, wingless, with the body long and thin as a stick (which is why these insects are known as 'stick insects') and with long, spindly legs, but slow in its movements, we also find Bacillus rossius (F.) also represented solely by females, and the Gonopsisgallica (Charp.).
Finally the order of the earwig, commonly called "scissors" due to the presence of a pair of sturdy hooks in the abdomen forming a pincer grip, is the common Forficula auricularia (L.) that, contrary to the popular belief, is totally harmless. Vanessa cardui e Lycaena phlaes
Heteroptera: These insects have been studied by E. Wagner, who in two years of research on Etna has been able to collect 196 species. Among these there are 10 species that are currently well-known just for the Etna: Alloeotomus aetueus (Costa) Schirus micans (Harv.) Oxycareuus lougiceps (Wagner), Anthocaris castaueae (Wagner), Orthotylus siciliauus (Wagner), Platycranus Hartig (Wagner), Psallus aetnicola (Wagner), Tupone Hartig (Wagner). Also 5 other species are represented in Etna by special breeds: Sciocoris cursitans pallidicornis (Wagner), short Phyllomorpha laciniata (Wagner), Spilostethus equestrissiciliauus (Wagner), Saldula arenicola cataniaua (Wagner), Sigara uigrolineata Sicilian (Wagner), from a que - Ropaloceri Lepidoptera butterflies flying during the day in Etna amounted to 63 species (Sichel 1955, 1957, 1962) and they all have a much wider distribution in the Palearctic region, as there is no single one species only endemic to Sicily, we may consider that a number of these species seems to have arrived in Sicily during the Quaternary glaciations: Leptidea Sinapis (L.), Antbocaris CARDAMINES (L.), Melitaea atbalia (Rott.) Clossiana Euphrosyne (L.), Aglais urticae (L.), Brenthis daphne (Schiff.) Adopoea lineola (Och.) Ochlodes veined (Br. et Gr.)
Of greater significance and interest is the presence of two other species of Mount Etna that in Sicily are not found outside of Etna, but perhaps they are also present on Peloritani. One of the species is of oriental, Transionian origin, Anthocaris Damon (Bois.) that throughout Europe, in addition to Etna, lives only in some parts of Greece and Aspromonte, the other species is 1'eurosibirica Lysandra icarius (esp.) fell along the Apennines during the ice ages and then penetrated into Sicily, where the only known Sicilian station of this species finds its shelter at the refuge Citelli: it is a case similar to the already mentioned Orthoptera Stenobothrus lineatus.
This order Hymenoptera includes the insects commonly known as wasps, bees and ants. The news reported herein derive from the research conducted by V. Nobile that is still largely unedited.
He is a scholar of this order of insects and especially the Bee. He has found so far 171 species (ants esluse) in Etna of which 141 are formed by well-Bee: these Hymenoptera can be observed more easily because they go to the flowers from which they get pollen and nectar.Eresus niger e Sphaerophoria scripta
Among the flashiest ones we shall remember the Xylocopa violacea (L.) of great size and a lovely purplish-black colour, and the bumblebees, which are also easily recognizable by their thick and rich hair with which they cover their big and chunky body, and by the colours with which they are adorned: Bombus terrestris (L.), Megabombus hortorum (L.), Megabombus pasquorum siciliensis (Tkal.), Sichel Pyrobombus alticola (Kriec.). Among the wasps the European hornet (Vespa orientalis L.) is not missing, the common wasps of the genus Polistes that make those little nests of cardboard hanging with a stalk, the Ammophila with a long abdomen, the large Scola of large yellow and black swathes. Sometimes it may happen to observe the beautiful Mutilla, whose wingless females look like big ants of well chosen velvet colours, as the silver double-faced Stenomutilla (Klug) and the two-coloured mountainous Smicromyrme (Lucas).